Coronavirus: A new threat to the world

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Coronavirus: A new threat to the world

On 31st December, the Who China Country Office was informed of cases of Pneumonia unknown etiology detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China. According to WHO "From 31st December 2019 through 3rd January 2020, a total of 44  case-patients with pneumonia with unknown etiology". During this period, the causal agent was not identified. A week later on 7 January, Chinese authorities confirmed that they had identified a new virus. The new virus is a coronavirus, which is a family of viruses that includes the common cold, and viruses such as SARS  and MERS.

On 11 and 12 January 2020 National Health Commission provided further details regarding the unknown etiology to WHO that outbreak is due to the seafood market in Wuhan City. China also shared information on the genetic consequences of the novel Coronavirus and developing specific Diagnostics Kit... After it's an outbreak in China, several other countries like Thailand, Japan, the Republic of Korea  United Stated Of America, Hong Kong, Taipei, Macau Special Administration Region, Singapore Canada,  France, Nepal Malaysia Australia, Germany, France reported cases of Coronavirus according to World Health Organization. The cases here were believed to be exported from Wuhan City, China. The virus is also called 2019-nCov, temporarily.

As of 23 January 2020, the number of confirmed cases increased by 267 cases since the last situation report. Chinese health authorities have confirmed that twenty-five per cent of cases were seriously ill. There is evidence that this virus spreads from human to human visit exchange of fluids from the respiratory tract and also cross-generation of cases. Owing to a case in Vietnam where there was a family member of a confirmed case who visited Wuhan. Even health workers cannot escape from this grave virus. WHO assesses that China is at high risk of this epidemic.

According to the latest situation report drafted by World Health Organization (WHO), there are at present 2798 confirmed cases of Coronavirus globally, 2741 confirmed alone, 5794 suspected, 461severe,80 deaths and all only pertains to China alone. WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghenreyesus and colleagues are in Beijing to discuss with the government and health experts. The mission's aim is to understand the latest development and strength of the partnership with China. As of right now the current estimation of the incubation period of the virus range from 2-10 days, though the estimation will become more refined as more data will be available.

The health experts are trying to understand the fact when the infected patient may transmit the virus to others. WHO is continuously monitoring the development.  Few of the symptoms of coronavirus are as follows-:

* Fever
* Cough
* Shortness of Breath
* Vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Pneumonia
 
In advance cases, the patient can have very serious complications, leading to death. 
 
CDC (Center for Disease Control And Prevention)believed that it takes 2days as long as 14 days for the symptoms of coronavirus to appear.  Research is going on to further classify the symptoms of 2019nCov virus.
 
As of right now, there are no current vaccines to prevent 2019nCov infection. Though CDC has issued certain guidelines to prevent the infection from being spreading which are -:
 
1) Wash your hands with soap for at least 20seconds or use an alcohol-based sanitizer. 
 
2) Avoid touching your eyes, nose, mouth with unwashed hands
 
3) Avoid contact with people who are infected. 
 
4) Stay at home when  you are sick
 
5) Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, throw the used tissue 
 
6) Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces
 
7) Consumption of raw or uncooked meat should be avoided. 
 
WHO's objectives in response are -:
 
1) Limit human to human contact, reduce secondary infection among health care workers, close relatives and further preventing the virus from spreading to international borders. 
 
2)Identify, isolated and optimized care for the patients as well as reduce transmission from an animal source
 
3) Communicate critical risk and event information to all communities. 
 
4) Minimize social and economic impact. 
 
5) Address crucial and unknown clinical severity. 
 
WHO has, issued travel Advisory for early deduction of coronavirus and reduce it from spreading which includes educating the travellers via public health authorities so that one protects themselves from illness. Also, conduct exit screening at international airports and ports in affected areas with the aim of early detection of symptoms. The exit screening includes signs and symptoms, interviews with passengers with respiratory infections. Thus, keeping confirmed cases under isolation and treatment. In addition, this, encourage screening at the domestic airport, railway stations and implementation of health information campaign at Points at Entry to raise awareness among the masses thereby reducing the general risk of the disease itself.
 
Effect on India
 
The effects of coronavirus have been traced in India as well. On Jan 28, there were three suspected cases of coronavirus that were reported in the capital. The patient had returned from China recently and was admitted to Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital New Delhi with respiratory symptoms similar to the deadly disease which is spreading like a wildfire. According to the chief medical officer of the hospital, there are three patients under observation. The virus isn't confirmed yet but there are showing similar symptoms. Though till now there are no positive cases that have been detected in India still over 100 people have been kept under observation in the states of Kerala and Maharashtra since Monday. Indian Embassy in Beijing in touch with the Chinese government, nationals on evacuating Indians. An Air India jumbo plane ready for evacuation of Indians from Wuhan Also health ministry has asked people who have travel to China since January 1 to visit the nearest health facility in case they experience any symptoms such as fever, cough, and respiratory distress. 
 
Airport authorities have screened nearly 30,000 passengers at various airports across the nation to prevent the virus which has caused the global scare. In Kerala alone, 400 people are kept under observation according to the latest report. The official said that the aviation ministry will also ask the airlines to make in flights announcement and distribute heth cards to all flights with direct or indirect connectivity to China. Union Health Secretary Preeti Sudan has asked states such as Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim who share borders with Nepal to review their prevention and management procedures of coronavirus. The government has issued a 24x7 helpline number to attend the queries of the novel coronavirus as a number of cases rose around the world. 
 
According to the report of the Economic Times, there are 106 deaths overall. Chinese Officials have full placed lockdown on Wuhan v, isolating it's 11 million residents from the rest of the world. Right now, the entire world is in the grip of a deadly disease with the number of deaths keep on rising. 

About the Author

Kajal Gupta
Student.

Ms Kajal Gupta is pursuing B.A honors in Applied Psychology from Amity University, Haryana.

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